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1.2.3 Spherical.

In figure [5], a point P will be identified throughout the coordinates,

 rp    ,    θp        ,    φp                (19)




            The unitary vectors that indicate the direction in which the coordinates grow are:


 none of the unitary directions remains constant in all the point and must be,


 the differential displacements along the above directions will be,

 dr                r dθ             r senθ dφ           (22)

 a generic displecement of point P,


In figure [6], a differential volume element is shown as well as the differential elements of area that encloses it. The differential element of volume is equal to,

                            dV  =  r2  senθ  dr  dθ  dφ                (24)



the perpendicular faces to axis r, have a differential area equal to,

                 dSr =  r2  senθ  dθ  dφ           (25)

 the area of the faces perpendicular  to direction θ,

 dSθ =  r  senθ  dφ  dr          (26)

 and the area  of faces perpendicular to to φ direction,

 dSφ = r  dθ  dr         (27)

 Like all the other systems of coordinates, any element of area described can be expressed through a vector with a magnitude equal to the area and with a direction perpendicular to the element.

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